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First example of biological warfare

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First recorded biological warfare was recorded in 1347 in Feodosiya, Crimea during the Mongol conquests. Mongols were holding Crimean city Feodosiya under the siege. Catapulting infected bodies and sometimes even live plague victims over the city walls. Some theories suggest that this plaque traveled through Crime trading routes into Italy. Thus infecting the whole Europe and reaching its peak in 1950s. The plaque was called the Black Death and accounts for Europe’s population decline by one third. There are death estimates of this pandemic that go as far as 200 million deaths in Europe in the years 1346–1353.

Facts about Ronald Reagan

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The 40th U. S. president Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911 in Tampico, Illinois. Due to his unique hairstyle he was nicknamed “Dutch” by his father. He had his early education in Dixon where he actively participated in sports, acting and story- telling.

Ronald Reagan with Marilyn Monroe
Ronald Reagan with Marilyn Monroe

While a student of high school he took up his first job as a lifeguard at the Rock River and saved 77 lives there. He completed his bachelor’s degree from Eureka College where he was admitted due to athletics scholarship which he won in 1928. Here also he actively participated in co-curricular activities. Once a graduate he served many radio stations as a sports announcer. Finally in 1937 he gave a screen test and signed a seven year contract with Warner Brothers. This was his first step in Hollywood and he got break through his first movie “Love is in the Air”. In 1937, during the Second World War Ronald joined Army Air Corps and reached to the rank of captain. In 1945 he left the army and again became the part of Hollywood. In between he married Jane Wyman in 1940, had two children from her but Jane opposed his political career and they were finally divorced in 1949 which recorded him as the only divorcee president of the U. S. A strong supporter of the Democratic Party changed to the Republic Party after the Second World War. Winning the hearts of many he soon became a famous politician. It was in 1967 that he became the governor of California and brought about many social reforms which proved fruitful and he won again in 1971. In 1980 Ronald Reagan won Presidential Elections and served for two consecutive terms and retired as the oldest president at the age of 77 in 1989. He died on June 5, 2004 of pneumonia at the age of 93. Ronald Reagan coined the term “New World Order” which was later connected to many conspiracy theories. During his presidency Reagan sold weapons to Iran and ended cold war without firing a shot.

Facts on Khmer Rouge

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Khmer Rouge was a notable group of people that was originally based out of Cambodia. The group consisted of people who followed the Communist Party of Kampuchea in the 1970s. The regime was very strong but was noted predominantly for its violence in that the regime was responsible for the deaths of nearly two million people from executions, forced labor and starvation. The regime was also noted for featuring a number of notable figures, predominantly Pol Pot, who worked to get the entire movement going. All of these figures worked together and came from varying backgrounds but would also be taken out during the entire process as well. All of these figures worked together to create this regime and were all involved in a series of tribunals that were arranged by a number of judges from all over the world. Khmer Rouge was created in the 1960s by Pol Pot in the jungles of Cambodia. The name is French for “Red Khmer” and was named by Norodom Sihanouk, the former King and Prime Minister of Cambodia. The group was devoted to the creation of a radical Communist regime. This regime was formed as a means of working to destroy all influences on Cambodia by the Western world.

Khmer Rouge follower on trial execution
Khmer Rouge follower on trial execution Photo: Bettmann / Corbis

An agrarian society was the target of Khmer Rouge. Pol Pot, the founder of the organization, was born as Salot Sar in 1925. He grew up in the northern Cambodian province of Kompong Thong. He moved to Phnom Penh, the capitol of Cambodia, in 1931 and in 1946 joined the Communist Party to help get rid of the French in the area.He joined the French Communist Party in 1952 but soon failed an examination. He came back to Cambodia a year later and joined the Kampuchean People’s Revolutionary Party in the same year. He soon began working as a teacher in a private school and also got married. The 1960s were a time when Pol Pot began to set up the foundation of Khmer Rouge. In 1960 restructured the KPRP and the group was renamed the Workers’ Party of Kampuchea. He became the main commander of the WPK in 1963. It would again become the Kampuchean Communist Party in 1966 after he visited China.He would refuge to the northeastern part of Cambodia in 1967 and created a revolutionary army a year later. A massive insurgency campaign from Khmer Rouge was created in 1970. The group was assisted by troops from the Viet Cong and from North Vietnam. The guerrillas in Khmer Rouge worked in a massive campaign to take over Cambodia and oust government officials. The start of the campaign was very effective and was able to get control of about a third of Cambodia.The United States became involved in this insurgency in 1973 by secretly bombing various areas of Cambodia that had been controlled by Vietnamese Communists. This was used to force Vietnam out of Cambodia. However, this ended up creating an open space for Pol Pot to use to control this newly freed up space in the country. The pro-American regime in Cambodia would soon be taken over in 1975. This was when the Khmer Rouge took over the Cambodian capitol of Phnom Penh. At this point the organization created a new government in the Kampuchean People’s Republic. Pol Pot became the Prime Minister of the KPR and also became the head of state.

Pol Pot fleeing to Thailand Photo: AP

Much of the success that Khmer Rouge had in taking over this area was immortalized in the national anthem of the Kampuchean People’s Republic. For example, the national anthem, which was translated to English as the “Glorious Seventeenth of April” states “On the 17th of April, under the revolutionary banner, Their blood freed us from the state of slavery.” The anthem states about how the land was conquered by the people devoted to the cause and that “The blood of our good workers and farmers and of our revolutionary combatants, of both men and women” was spilled in order to ensure that the land would be taken in for full control. The anthem also stated that Khmer Rouge would “Construct a Kampuchea with a new and better society, democratic, egalitarian and just. We follow the road to a firmly-based independence.” The anthem also stated that the people of the land would defend “Our fine territory” from all invaders that would dare to come into it.The ending of the anthem says that the country would work to “Make our motherland prosperous beyond all others.” The goal was the make sure that the land would be “A splendid, democratic land of plenty.” A new flag was also established for the rule of the Khmer Rouge. The flag was predominantly red in color and features a yellow emblem on it. This was the flag that flew over all of the official buildings around the area while the group was in control of everything in the area. The goal that Pol Pot had in mind for ruling this new country was to create the most idealistic place in the world that would be free from Western influences. As a result of this all of the old features of Cambodia were purged. Pol Pot forced all cities to be evacuated and to get all schools and factories closed down. All private properties and currencies were removed as a means of ensuring that all former traces of Cambodia would be removed and that the area could start all new. The main task was to see that nothing that could influence the area from the outside would be allowed into the area. Also, people who were deemed to be intellectuals who might be influenced by other countries, including people who were able to speak secondary languages, were executed. People who held any pieces of technology and anyone who was a skilled worker were also executed. Even people who had wristwatches or eyeglasses were executed due to how they were believed to be unique materials that would give certain people advantages for what they were doing in their daily lives.A number of people tried to escape Kampuchea but many of them were forced into forced marches with many people dying during these marches. Also, many people who did not escape were forced to work on rural collective farms in the area. It is estimated that between 1975 and 1978 about two million people died. These people were killed due to executions, dying from exhaustion from forced labor or dying from malnutrition and famine.In 1977 Pol Pot visited China. He left to the area in order to ask for assistance against Vietnamese troops. As a result of the hostilities that were being created Vietnamese troops invaded Kampuchea in 1978. In the early part of 1979 they successfully captured Phnom Penh. After this happened a more moderate type of Communist government was created to where Cambodia would be formed back up again. The Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot were forced back into the jungles after this happened. When Pol Pot was forced out he fled to Thailand by helicopter. Although Pol Pot continued to be the head of the Khmer Rouge he ended up retiring from duties in 1985. He would continue to be interpreted as the ruler as the organization continued working on guerrilla attacks against Cambodian government officials. In 1997 Pol Pot was put on trail by Khmer Rouge after he was removed from his leadership position due to internal squabbling. He was tried and was sentenced to prison for life in a trial that many people criticized for being too slow. However, Pol Pot defended himself by saying that his conscience was “clear.” A number of other people faced tribunals during the trial of Khmer Rouge. Ieng Sary, a foreign minister from 1976 to 1978, controlled a large western grouping of timber and gems. He joined the People’s Revolutionary Party in 1975 and became a member of the central committee not long after entering. He also became the Deputy Prime Minister while with the Khmer Rouge. He defected from Khmer Rouge in 1996. The death sentence that King Norodom Sihanouk placed on Sary was cancelled out and Sary was pardoned for his work.Nuon Chea, who was known as Brother Number Two, also faced a tribunal. He was the chief lieutenant for Pol Pot. He had been a member of the Indochinese Communist Party in 1951 and would become the general deputy secretary of the Communist Party after a period of time. During his work as a member of Khmer Rouge he had become the most trusted lieutenant to Pol Pot and had a great deal of power over various controls of the movement. Chea entered a surrender pact with Prime Minister Hun Sen in 1998 in order to avoid prosecution. He has since retired to a home in the area with his wife. Chea was the last remaining member of Khmer Rouge at the time that he surrendered.Khieu Samphan, who was an economist who was taught in Paris and was also a brother in law of Pol Pot and Ieng Sary, was also on a tribunal. He was elected to the National Assembly for Cambodia from 1962 to 1966 and was soon flee to join the Communist movement in 1967. He became the chairman of the state presidium in Cambodia in 1976. He led a rebel government after being the head of state from 1976 to 1979 and would even have a major talk with Sihanouk in the North Korean capitol of Pyongyang in 1981.He became the new leader of Khmer Rouge in 1985 after Pol Pot stepped down from this position. Also, he represented the Khmer Rouge from 1987 to 1991 and did so for the 1991 Paris Peace Accords. In 1998 he surrendered to the Cambodian government.Chhit Choeun was also in a tribunal. This man, who was also known as Ta Mok, was a one-legged army chief in the organization and was referred to as the “Butcher.” He received this name after killing thirty thousand people in the massacre at Angkor Chey.He lost a part of his leg when he was young. He was educated in 1930 at the age of four as a Buddhist monk in Pali. When he turned sixteen he left monkhood and in 1940 he joined a group of resistant against the Japanese and French. He would join the anti-French group Khmer Issarak in 1964. He would soon end up becoming the leader of the DKR’s national army. He was arrested in 1999 despite making a number of different deals with businessmen in Thailand. He was been awaiting a trial ever since this event happened.Kang Khek Leu has also been awaiting a trial since 1999. He was also known as Duch and had taught math prior to becoming the leader of an interrogation center in Phnom Penh. One of the activities that he did while running this center was to order seventeen children to be executed because they failed to turn their parents in to proper authorities.A substantial number of different judges worked during the hearings in the trial of Khmer Rouge. Three of these judges were based out of Cambodia. Nil Nonn was the first judge. He had been the leader of the provincial court of Battambang since 1993. He dealt with the aftermath of all rehabilitation involving the guerrillas that served for Pol Pot after they surrendered for the final time in 1998. Thou Mony also served as a judge. He was on the Phnom Penh Appeal Court since 1991 and worked in a case involving sentencing three Khmer Rouge commanders to jail sentences of twenty years after a 1994 murder of three European tourists.Ya Sokhan, a court judge in Phnom Penh, was the third judge.

Phnom Penh today divided between poor and rich
Phnom Penh today divided between classes

In 2004 he convicted Hambali, a notable al Qaeda associate, for a plot to blow up American and British embassies in the area.The fourth judge was Silvia Cartwright of New Zealand. She was appointed as the Governor-General of New Zealand in 2001. She has been noted for supporting women’s rights and has been a lawyer and jurist for years before taking in her current position.The last of the judges was Jean-Marc Lavergne of France. He was the vice president of the Criminal Court in Le Mans. He was also an adviser for the Appeal Court in Rennes. People were asking for some of Pol Pot’s captors to put him into a new trial and extradite him. However, Pol Pot was never able to get to jail because he had died in 1998 while he was under house arrest.Twenty-four other people were involved in the trial. These included judges in the Supreme Court Chamber as well as co-investigating judges, co-prosecutors and pre-trial chamber members. A majority of people in the case were from the area but there were also people from the United States, Japan, Poland, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands and Sri Lanka among other places.The international variance of all of the judges was used to ensure that a fair trial could be given out but it would have been very difficult for this to happen. This is due to how the cases that had been made against the members of Khmer Rouge had been very negative and would end up creating a major impact on the ability of these people to work with proper defenses at the time that the tribunals had been going on.During the entire time that the Khmer Rouge ran the country it was referred to under a number of different names. The most common name that people use for it is the Khmer Rouge name that Shianouk used for it. A series of other unofficial names were also used to refer to the regime by a number of different people who had observed and read of it at the time.The regime has been referred to by some as the Pol Pot Regime and the Genocide Regime. It was also referred to as the Killing Fields due to how the regime ended up massacring a number of people during its reign and its transition to power. Other names that the regime was referred to included the Cambodian Communists, the Communist Party of Cambodia, the Red Khmer, the Cambodian Genocide, Khmer Krah-Ham and Angkar.

Markets in Phnom Penh Photo: Martin Roemers
Markets in Phnom Penh
Photo: Martin Roemers

The main thing that can be seen about Khmer Rouge is that it was one of the most violent and deadliest regimes in the history of the world. This is due to how millions of people had been killed during the rule of the Khmer Rouge. Today the remnants of Khmer Rouge are inactive and the control that the company once had has been killed off, thus ensuring that genocide like this can never happen in Cambodia again.

Facts about Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born 18 July in the year 1918. He was named Rolihlahla and got the name Mandela from his grandfather. The name Nelson was given to him by his teacher Miss Mdingane. He was born in Mveso, Umtata in the Cape Province. After the death of his father he was looked after by his relative. He became the first child of Mandela family to get education. He was an intelligent child and completed the Junior certificate in two years instead of three. Nelson took admission in the University of Fort Hare to do Bachelor’s in Arts but was soon suspended as he joined in the protest boycott. He accomplished his graduation through correspondence from the University of South Africa. Mandela was a bright student and while in prison he studied and passed Bachelor’s degree of Law from the University of London External Program and in 1952 he along with Tambo started the first legal firm for the black in South Africa. In 1956 he was arrested for a deceit with 150 more blacks but they managed to elope in 1961; to escape arrest he disguised in different forms. Though a tough believer of non violence he formed MK guerrilla force to fight against apartheid. He was finally sent to prison in 1962 and was imprisoned for 27 long years and was released in 1990. In 1994 he was elected the first South African president elected in the complete democratic elections. A simple president was well known for wearing Madiba shirts (batik painted). He was 75 when he was elected the president, the first oldest president. Mandela has almost 250 prizes to his name. Some of them being Nobel Peace Prize, honorary Canadian citizen, Lenin Peace Prize and many others. His degrees are from the renowned Universities which are more than fifty from all around the world.

Facts About Abraham Lincoln

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Abraham Lincoln was married to Marry Todd and was a father of four children but three of sons died before even turning 20 and in the present times there are no living heirs of Lincoln. Lincoln’s hat was more than fashion or protection, the 6 Feet 4 inches tall Lincoln used it to store money. He wore custom footwear and was more spiritual than religious. His sons were a death magnet and attracted major accidents. Lincoln was a skilled wrestler and could use axe even more skillfully. Days before he actually died, Lincoln had a dream about his death. When he was shot he was seeing the play “Our American Cousin”. His bodyguard left the position few minutes before his assassin, John Wilkes Booth, arrived. When escaping from the stage John Booth broke his ankle by landing awkwardly on the foot. He raised himself up and yelled, “Sic semper tyrannis!” Meaning in Latin “Thus always to tyrants” (which is Virginia State motto).

Facts About Jimmy Carter

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The First President to be born in a hospital, a student of Nuclear physics and a speed reader who can read almost 2000 words a minute, Jimmy Carter once panned for Gold too. At the age of five he was punished by his father for stealing from the collection plate at a church, a penny. The draft resisters that belong to the Vietnam War were also pardoned by him. Before he entered the world of politics, he used to ride motorcycles. Jimmy Carter is said to be the first President whose mother was sent on a diplomatic mission. After his father’s death, he ran very successfully his family’s peanut farm. Received 2002 Nobel Peace Prize in the Oslo, Norway. He said about Iraq war: “I thought then, and I think now, that the invasion of Iraq was unnecessary and unjust. And I think the premises on which it was launched were false.”

Facts About Korean War

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The Korean War took place within the period of 25th June, 1950 and 27th July, 1953. The battling parties included North Korea, with Chinese assistance about halfway through, and South Korea along with the United Nations. The subject of the battle was communism. Over 3 million lives were lost. However, the war prevented communism to enter the boundaries of South Korea. It marked the beginning of the infamous Cold War. It is often referred to as “The Forgotten War”, because of its occurrence which was just after World War 2, and just prior to the Vietnam War. Interesting fact is that there was a first major use of jet powered aircraft in Korean War.


Turkmenbashi Facts

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His Excellency Saparmurat Niyazov Turkmenbashi, president of Turkmenistan is one of the most controlling dictators known in the world today. There are no churches because he knocks them down. Each year he wants to resign as the president, but congress begs him to stay. He has even rewritten the calendar and renamed the month of January to “Turkmenbashi.” April is named after his mother. He ruled Turkmenistan  from 1985 until his death in 2006.

U.S President Trafficking Virgins

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United States presidential election, 1824, Andrew Jackson emerged as winner with majority of votes. However, under the 12th Amendment, if no candidate got a majority of the college, the election went to the House and there it was decided by Henry Clay, the all-powerful Speaker, who gave it to Adams, under the secret condition that Adam makes him secretary of state. Arguments went out of control and Adams supporters claimed that Jackson is bigamist, adulterer and murderer. Adams was accused of trafficking American virgins to Russian Tsar.

Idi Amin Ate His Opponents

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Idi Amin, the former dictator of Uganda and the former heavyweight boxing champion of Uganda was one of Africa’s most notorious dictators. During his eight-year rule an estimated 500,000 people disappeared or were killed. He praised Hitler and said the German dictator “was right to burn six million Jews.” He offered to be king of Scotland if asked. It was reported that Idi Amin ate some of his opponents.

Peter The Great Facts

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Tsar and Emperor of Russia Peter the Great (1672-1725) was unusual ruler by many means. In the battle against the Turks in 1695 he fought as regular foot soldier believing that was the only way to beat the Turks. Peter is believed to have been six feet, seven inches in height (2.04 meters). He married twice and had 11 children, many of whom died in infancy. The eldest son from his first marriage, Czarevich Alexei, was convicted of high treason by his father and secretly executed in 1718.

Mao Tse Tung Facts

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Mao Tse-tung founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949. He was one of the founders of the Chinese Communist party in 1921. In 1915 Mao attended university in Changsa, China where he wrote the longest recorded graffiti, criticizing the Chinese school system and current state of Chinese society. His graffiti consisted of more than 4000 Chinese characters. Mao Tse-tung was married four times and he believed that having sex with virgins “would help to restore and reinvigorate a man’s health and vigor”. Mao was responsible for more than 30 millions deaths mostly from hunger and starvation.

George Washington Facts

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On February 22, 1732 George Washington was born. George Washington was the only of all Founding Fathers to free his slaves. Marijuana was the primary crop grown by George Washington at Mount Vernon. He was the first Mason to serve as president. Washington rejected a movement among army officers to make him king of the United States. Washington is the only president who was elected unanimously.

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