First recorded biological warfare was recorded in 1347 in Feodosiya, Crimea during the Mongol conquests. Mongols were holding Crimean city Feodosiya under the siege. Catapulting infected bodies and sometimes even live plague victims over the city walls. Some theories suggest that this plaque traveled through Crime trading routes into Italy. Thus infecting the whole Europe and reaching its peak in 1950s. The plaque was called the Black Death and accounts for Europe’s population decline by one third. There are death estimates of this pandemic that go as far as 200 million deaths in Europe in the years 1346–1353.
Before Stanley Kubrick took over, Mick Jagger and the Rolling Stones were considered to play the “droogs” in the Clockwork Orange. Anthony Burgess the author of Clockwork Orange wanted to sell his novel rights to Mick Jagger for few hundred dollars. Luckily for the sake of film industry Malcolm McDowell got the main part in the movie and Stanley Kubrick directed what is considered to be the most controversial movie of all time. Most of the “unknown” words, like “droogs” are taken from the Russian language.
When shooting Alien Resurrection in 1997 there was a scene where Sigourney has to make a basketball shot, behind the back, 6 feet (2 meters) pass the 3-point line. Director wanted to drop the ball from the top and trick the viewers that Sigourney has actually made that shot. However, Sigourney insisted that she can make it and she did it on her first try.
Elon Reeve Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in Pretoria, South Africa to father Errol and mother Maye Musk.
In 1989 he moved to Canada and from 1992 lived in United States after receiving a scholarship from The University of Pennsylvania.
In 1995, created his first IT company Zip2. Sold it in 1999 for $307 million.
In 1999, he wanted to make online payments easier so he founded a company that is now known as PayPal. He sold it to eBay in 2002. for $1.5 billion.
In 2004 he wanted to make serial production of electric cars, so he invested $70 million in Tesla Motors and became the chairman of the board of directors. Tesla Motors made a series of electric super-cars which were pretty expensive, but Musk used earned money to further invest in electric vehicles and in early 2016. Tesla unveiled their $35,000 Tesla Model 3 electric car intended for mass production.
In 2015, Tesla Motors unveiled its new product called Powerwall, a wall-mounted lithium ion battery that charges using electricity generated from solar panels, or from city power system when utility rates are low, and can provide 7-10 kWh of electric power. Any excess amount of power can be stored in batteries for later usage.
SolarCity is yet another of Musk’s companies. He is not the founder, but he is a shareholder since 2003 when he invested $10 million in the company. SolarCity provides homes, companies and governments with electric power generated with solar panels. In 2008, the company built solar-powered electric systems for British Motors and eBay to power their headquarters and servers.
He founded SpaceX in 2002, because he was fascinated by an ambitious idea of reducing space transportation costs to enable people to colonize Mars. In 2006 Musk invested over $100 million in the company to boost the development. Grasshopper and Falcon 9 are experimental launch vehicles that are able to make vertical landings and vertical takeoffs, meaning we could be able to re-use space transportation vehicles in near future.
As it wasn’t enough, in 2013 he published a blog post about a new type of transportation called Hyperloop. It is a high speed solar powered transportation system driven by induction motors and air compressors. It should transport people from San Francisco to Los Angeles in 30 minutes covering the distance of 614.44 km (381.8 miles).
In early 2015, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies (HTT) signed an agreement to begin construction of the first full-scale test track in 2016 in the town of Quay Valley, CA, and complete the construction by 2017 – accepting passengers by 2018.
Uma Karuna Thurman, daughter of Robert Thurman and Nena Thurman, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on April 29, 1970. Uma’s father was the first American to be ordained a Tibetan Buddhist monk. Her mother is a Swedish psychotherapist and former Vogue model once married to the LSD guru Timothy Leary. Uma’s mothers father, german baron, was held by Nazis because he didn’t want to reveal his Jewish friends hideout. Uma has been briefly married to Gary Oldman when she was nineteen.
Sleep paralysis is a medical phenomenon where awakening person experiences temporary inability to move or speak. It is a state between being asleep and awake, where one’s mind is awake but the body is still sleeping. It usually lasts only a couple of seconds or up to one minute, but one can get a feeling it lasts much longer (several minutes). It usually happens very rarely and almost always when sleeping on its back. Regularly, person can experience panic attack and severe paranoia during this state, as the feeling of helplessness intensifies.
There is also another form of sleep paralysis, but significantly rarer sometimes even more than once per night, and if you are hit by this form of sleep paralysis you might feel trapped in your body for more than an hour!
In this phenomena if the person experiencing sleep paralysis opens its eyes, he or she might experience visual and/or audio hallucinations, usually thinking the “intruder” is in the room where intruder either can’t be seen or can be seen in a form of some demon or dead relative. This is usually accompanied with the feeling of inability to breathe, which is usually described as “the witch sitting on your chest”.
Have you ever wondered why when someone yawns, the other person follows suit? Yawning is caused due to low levels of oxygen in the air, which makes the body intake large amounts of oxygen. The reason why yawning is said to be contagious is because when we do so, we are actually activating our nervous system. This has something to do with the survival instinct we have inherited in the course of evolutionary past. In the primitive years, when someone would yawn, the whole group would become alert and get better at sensing danger.
There seems to be no logical answer behind this as women are the ones who nurture their babies with the milk from their breasts. Then, why do men have nipples on their bodies. Study about this has shown that initially all embryos have a female template and therefore the nipples is one of the things that are developed in the embryo before the X or Y chromosome is decided. This is the main reason why men as well as women have nipples on their bodies. The nipples in a man have no function as such. Though, due to hormonal imbalance in a man the nipples can grow to become more prominent. Therefore, the development of nipples is because of early development in the embryo and that is when it does not matter whether it is going to be a baby boy or girl. So, men are left with mammary tissue though only a little bit of it. The flip side of this is that the breast tissue in men can go on to develop into breast cancer and other concerns just like as in women. They have the same nipples as in women but only the size and function differs.
You might be left wondering why does poop sometimes float and on other times, you are able to effortlessly flush it away. The main reason behind this is the gas content that it contains that makes it have a lower density when compared to water. Anything with a lower density will be able to float on water and that is exactly what happens in this instance. The reason that this only happens sometimes is that most of the time, any gas in the stomach or digestive tract, gets dispensed in the form of gas. However, if this does not happen then the only way that it can happen is by means of the gas escaping in the form of it being within the poop. At the same time, there will be instances when your diet and what you have eaten will make a difference. There are certain sections of food that take longer to digest and therefore go on to create more gas. Also, there are some diseases that make poop more gaseous and float. The bottom line therefore is that more gas you have in your gut, the lighter is your poop going to be and more likely to float.
There is no denial to the fact that human beings require fresh water to stay alive. It helps in the digestion of food and regulating other body functions. Alain Bombard brought the fact to the people that one can survive on sea water too but it has to be taken in small amounts i.e. Not more than 32 oz a day. So, in theory we can slowly ‘teach’ our body to accept small amounts of sea water, but intake of much sea water makes a person sick as it has salts in it which might cause dehydration and even death. The sea water tends to pull the water existing in body cells making them loose. Drinking sea water is unsafe as it carries bacteria which can make a person ill and secondly the salt content is too high for human body to digest and survive. Sea water also affects the kidneys resulting in its failure. Fresh water helps regulate the temperature of the body and improves physical conditions too.
Cliche is something that has been repeatdly used to the point of losing original meaning. The word “cliche” comes from the days of moveable type, where each letter had to be set by hand into a framework before printing. Commonly-used phrases were kept, pre-set in clamps so they could be regularly used without having to reset all the letters individually each time. The clamp that keeps letters together to form these oft-used sentences or phrases is called a cliche. Some of the popular cliche’s include:rnrnGood things come to those who wait.rnrnBoy meets girl. Boy falls in love with girl. Boy loses girl. Boy gets girl back. The End.rnrnA penny saved is a penny earned.rnrnThere’s plenty more fish in the sea.rnrnYou can’t teach an old dog new tricks.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens is the actual name of Mark Twain. Mark Twain was his pen name with which he used to write for the Keokuk Post. Before starting as a writer, Mark Twain worked as an apprentice printer, then served in the army for some time as soldier in American civil war, and then in a mine. One of the jobs for which he got recognition for other than writing was that of a lecturer. He was profoundly known for his story telling abilities and stage presence. Mark Twain was born weeks after the Halley’s comet was seen and died on the same day as the Halley comet was next seen, a span of 75 years. “Don’t tell fish stories where the people know you; but particularly, don’t tell them where they know the fish.”
Born on July 26, 1856 in Dublin, Ireland; George Bernard Shaw was a known playwright, journalist, orator, reviewer and a socialist. He was born to poor parents and suffered financially. He had to fight through school as a clerk, neither of which he enjoyed. It was in 1876 when he moved to London he earned fame as playwright, politician and celebrity .He became the force of a developing Fabian society. He did not like George in his name and just liked using Bernard Shaw. Shaw was a committed vegetarian, a socialist and he opposed the First World War He won Nobel Prize for Literature in 1925 and an Oscar in 1938 (Pygmalion). He is the only person to receive both awards. He did not follow any religion but favored religious beliefs: “my religious convictions and scientific views cannot at present be more specifically defined than as those of a believer in creative revolution.” Throughout his life he wrote more than 60 plays. His work dealt with political and social issues. He was known to dislike aristocrats and nobleman. One time he received invitation from local lord stating: “Lord C. Will be home Tuesday between 4 and 6”. Bernard Shaw returned invitation and wrote down: “George Bernard Shaw too”. Bernard died at an age of 94 when he fell down the ladder while trimming a tree.
There are a number of things about racial discrimination to see. These can change the way how people treat others and should encourage people to feel more comfortable around those who are different. It is estimated that there is five times as much genetic variation within different races than what is between them. This comes from how the melanin in one’s skin can change in a number of ways. This is a pigment that is used in one’s skin to influence one’s color. It come in red and dark brown, or pheomelanin and eumelanin, forms. Each pigment is determined by different genes that can be inherited from one’s parents. Each gene comes from many alleles that involve changes in skin tone. Also, the melanin can be used to control how much ultraviolet radiation from the sun can impact the skin. Also, the term pygmy is often used to define black people who are in groups where the average height of an adult male is less than five feet. This is something that was especially the case of Ota Benga, a pygmy who was taken in 1904 from the Belgian Congo and displayed as a so-called “savage” at the St. Louis World’s Fair. He was even put into the Bronx Zoo. However, a number of protests and legal threats forced the zoo to free him. An important concern about racial discrimination comes from how linguistic diversity is so commonplace in Africa. When technology was developed Europeans worked with many ideas from all over the world including rudders from China and numbers and trigonometry from India and Egypt. However, in Africa the continent had about ten percent of the world’s population and a third of all of its languages. This diversity has impacted the ability of all people to understand one another. In 1774 an antislavery society was created in America by Benjamin Rush and Benjamin Franklin. John Jay formed a similar group in New York. However, discrimination is still being used in some places. For example, in Sudan all people are expected to practice Islam despite how most people in the southern part of the country are black Christians and animists. The government has forced them into “peace camps” to get them to convert and has forced people who refuse to starve to death. More than a million people have died because of this since 2000.
George Ivanovich Gurdjieff, popularly known as G.I. Gurdjieff, a famous mystic and spiritual teacher, is believed to have born on January 14, 1866. His date of birth is, however, not confirmed till date but the conjectures range from 1866-1877. Gurdjieff is said to have born to a Greek father and Armenian mother in Alexandropol. He got his name, Gurdjieff, on the account of Muslim people around Georgia addressing the Georgian people as “gurdjis”. He described his discipline “The Work” (signifying “work on oneself”) as per Gurdjieff’s principles and instructions, or primarily the “Fourth Way”. He had also described his teachings, at one point, as “esoteric Christianity”. He averred that “Man lives in sleep, and in sleep he dies.” This quote states that, according to Gurdjieff, one cannot see reality in his current state as he does not have power over consciousness but to a certain extent lives in a state of hypnotic “waking sleep”. Above and beyond, Gurdjieff had also given many additional ideas based on his principles. Gurdjieff believed in self-development teachings and described them as “esoteric Christianity”. He denied the traditional methods of self-knowledge where knowledge is gained through pain, devotion, and study via being the “fakir”, “monk”, and “yogi”. According to Gurdjieff, these, instead, led to varied forms of stagnation and one-sidedness. Gurdjieff believed in augmenting the conventional ways of teaching, through his innovative methods, which moved along the developmental process. The most notable ideas and thoughts of Gurdjieff were – the Fourth Way, Fourth Way Enneagram, Centers, Ray of Creation, and Self-remembering. Gurdjieff’s thoughts have perhaps best acknowledged through his pupils’ published works.
Fish has all essential amino acids that humans need to survive. However, we could die if we had only fish in our diet. This is because fish has no Vitamin C which is crucial for human survival. Even today we use few drops of lemon when eating cooked fish. Only fish that consumes plankton has vitamin C, but only way to properly extract it is to eat fish raw with the contents of their intestines.
Believe or not the guy goes by this name. Just as expected of a victim with such a name, he forgave the person that had hit him with the car. The Lord Jesus Christ was actually hit by a woman. The only problem that the car driver had was that the police did not forgive her. She ran down the victim on a Massachusetts crosswalk.rnrnThe man is 50 years of age and hails from the town of Belchertown. After checking his id and passport the police officers were able to confirm that his name was indeed Lord Jesus Christ. The man luckily suffered only minor injuries on his face. He was treated at a local hospital and released on the same day. This was according to the republican.rnrnThe driver was clearly in fault as Christ was in a marked crosswalk at the time of the accident. This was according to Captain Scott Savino.rn
J.D. Salinger, short for Jerome David Salinger, a famous American novelist and short story writer, was born in 1919 in a prosperous Jewish family. Salinger completed his early schools and was then sent to Valley Forge Military Academy from 1934-1936. While he was attending NYU and Columbia University, he started submitting short stories for publication. His stories were usually published in various periodicals like Saturday Evening Post and Story. However, after being rejected many times, Salinger got the first chance to get his story published with the New Yorker in 1948 and he wrote for the publication till 1965. Salinger has written numerous interesting and popular stories, the most popular one being his novel ‘The Catcher in the Rye (1951)’. rnrnSome interesting facts from Salinger’s life:rnrn- Salinger’s book ‘The Cather in the Rye’ talks about troubled teenager after he has been expelled from school. ‘The Catcher in the Rye’ was a censored book and also, on the contrary, among the most taught books of the 20th century. rnrn- John Lennon’s killer Mark Chapman had copy with him when he assassinated John Lennon.rnrn- When book became bestseller Salinger retired to his cabin in the woods separated from the rest of the world. There he spent most of his life. He died January 27, 2010 at the age of 91. He never published another book, but he continued writing for his own pleasure.rnrn- Salinger had left Austria just one month prior to when the country fell under Hitler’s rule. However, his father had always wanted to join him as a meat importer for which he had sent Salinger to Austria.rnrn- Salinger had also served the country army during World War II and was one of the first American soldiers who had entered a liberated concentration camp.rnrn- Salinger has been, many a times, changing to a Zen Buddhist, to a Christian Scientist, and to a Scientologist.rn rn- Was married, but extremely controlling forcing his wife and kids to live in solitude, separated from humanity and civilization.rn
Caryn Elaine Johnson was born on November 13, 1955 to a minister father and a housewife mother in New York. Due to her flatulence problem everyone called her Whoopie Cushion and this was from where she got her new name. At her first break into the show business the producer preferred keeping her first name and adding Goldberg to it and this was the birth of “Whoopi Goldberg”. Whoopi has one brother.rnrnWhoopi Goldberg started working at the tender age of eight in the Children Theatre. Later she went to the High School for Performing Arts. As a teenager she became a heroin addict and married Alvin Martin, her drug counselor in 1973. Same year the couple was blessed with a daughter, Alexandra. After six years of married life Goldberg divorced Martin.rnrnWhoopi worked at different places before she could earn herself the life of a celebrity. She worked as a bricklayer, a bank teller and even as a make up artist at funeral parlor. In 1983 Whoopi performed in “The Spook Show” dressing up as different characters which proved to be a big hit. And it was from here that she got her first big break in the movie “The Color Purple”. The movie released in 1985 made her a nomination for the best actress.rnrnShe has number of awards to her name Emmy, Grammy and Oscar is a few. She not only worked as an actress but also as a comedian, singer, writer, activist politician and a talk show host.rnrnNow she is seen in roles of supporting actress and is a grandmother of two children as Alexandra gave birth to a baby girl in 1989 on the same date of her mother’s birth. rn
There are many theories behind why humans have pubic hair. One thought is that the hair that grows around the genitals and under the arms lock in sexually stimulating scents called pheromones. For some, scents released from these areas are noticeable and can increase sexual desire. For others, pheromones might not be obvious but may be subliminally sensed. Some people believe that pubic hair keeps our genitals warm. Others believe that the purpose of pubic hair is to prevent dirt from entering the vagina.rnrnPubic hair is also a natural thing to protect against body friction. Rubbing of skin can irritate and hair helps to decrease this problem. It helps to protect your sensitive areas from redness caused by the skin rubbing. This could also provide a protection of possible irritation during intercourse.rnrn