In 1940 Dr. S.S. Bryukhonenko at the Institute of Experimental Physiology and Therapy, Voronezh, U.S.S.R conducted research where he experimented with dogs and proved that dogs head can live without its body for three days. Special artificial conditions were created to power the head with arterial and venous pumps. Dog’s isolated head reacted to all basic external stimulants: light, sound, pain and taste. This disturbing Russian experiment helped scientist around the world to create artificial organs that are used by many medical institutes. More recently Dr. Robert White of Ohio claims that he transplanted a monkey’s head onto another monkey’s body. If you have a good stomach check this odd video which shows in detail how dog’s head is living without body.
Magnesium is the required mineral for good health. It was Sir Humphry Davy who segregated magnesium from Epson salts as magnesium does not exists in Free State. Magnesium is found in different proportions in different parts of our body; half of it is in cells and tissues, other half combined with other materials form our body framework and only a very little of it is found in our blood. Magnesium is there fore essential for proper functioning of nervous system, heart, regulation of blood pressure and for maintaining our bones. It also helps to metabolize energy and to break proteins for proper digestion.
The requirement of magnesium of our body cannot be met with the food we eat daily as it contains a meager amount of magnesium. To fulfill the need of the body one needs to eat variety of green vegetables as the chlorophyll pigment contains magnesium, other than this the mineral can be found in nuts, seeds and few whole grains. Fruits should also be taken in good amount. For non vegetarians meats and sea foods are of great help.
People involved in heavy physical activities should be on high magnesium diet as it helps in transmitting oxygen to the tissues, magnesium helps children in increasing their concentration level.
As excess of anything is bad same is the case with magnesium, in case of excess intake of magnesium a person might suffer kidney failure, muscle weakness, cramps, irregularity of heartbeats and extreme diarrhea. Generally people who are alcoholic, or are suffering with gastrointestinal and renal diseases are magnesium deficient.
Symptoms of magnesium deficiency are irritation, tiredness, loss of appetite and concentration, muscular weakness and abnormal heartbeat. Women need to be very careful about their magnesium intake after menopause the deficiency might lead to osteoporosis.
Sleep paralysis is a medical phenomenon where awakening person experiences temporary inability to move or speak. It is a state between being asleep and awake, where one’s mind is awake but the body is still sleeping. It usually lasts only a couple of seconds or up to one minute, but one can get a feeling it lasts much longer (several minutes). It usually happens very rarely and almost always when sleeping on its back. Regularly, person can experience panic attack and severe paranoia during this state, as the feeling of helplessness intensifies.
There is also another form of sleep paralysis, but significantly rarer sometimes even more than once per night, and if you are hit by this form of sleep paralysis you might feel trapped in your body for more than an hour!
In this phenomena if the person experiencing sleep paralysis opens its eyes, he or she might experience visual and/or audio hallucinations, usually thinking the “intruder” is in the room where intruder either can’t be seen or can be seen in a form of some demon or dead relative. This is usually accompanied with the feeling of inability to breathe, which is usually described as “the witch sitting on your chest”.
Most of our energy comes from a tiny little energy factory in our cells. This tiny little factory was essentially a small bacterium called mitochondrion that our ancestral cells swallowed when they had a little microscopic stand-off. Eventually they got to know each other over the years and are now running the multibillion cell industry that is our body. In order to handle the beast, cells had to tame down their protein synthesis capability down to a strict minimum where the mitochondria produce energy but nothing more. A proof of that is the poor quality of mitochondria protein synthesis system compared to the regular cell’s one.
After supernova universe was expanding up to one point and after that strange matter continued this expansion. Scientists called this matter the Dark Energy. Dark energy has so much of dark matter that is associated with it and we still don’t know much about it. Though, man has made such large strides in astronomy and has been able to find out so much, at the same time, there is so much more that remains and that is the dark matter. There is the mysterious and unknown form of energy in the universe that man has not been able to fathom much about.rnThis energy is in the form of one that is made by heavenly bodies like neutron stars, the sun, Galileo Galilei and the various black holes that abound. rnrnAlmost as much as 23% of the universe is not visible to the naked human eye. This means that there is so much of dark energy being formed in the universe and we are not aware of it. There are multitude amounts of different ways in which these gases and energy can get together in the most unknown of ways and probably go on to form stars and galaxies that way. This is the place where most of the mass in the universe accumulates. The dark energy is more concentrated towards the center and gets less as it goes outwards.
Susumu Ohno introduced the term, junk DNA, in 1972. Junk DNA represents the genome sequence portions that have no discernible function. Scientists maintain that junk DNA does not convey any selective advantage to organisms and does not possess any specificity. However, researches indicate that certain junk DNA sequences can have functional activity that is difficult to identify or certain other junk DNA sequences could have functional activity in the past. Junk DNA is also termed as non-coding DNA. This DNA does not produce proteins. Junk DNA makes up around 98% of human genome. Recent researches establish that junk DNA plays a significant role in human lives, even if it is not having functional activity. Changes in junk DNA leads to structural changes in the genome, with nearby active DNA molecules getting impacted. It is a very complex process and mutations related to diseases are controlled from even substantial distances. Further, emerging evidences reveal that the vast stretches of junk DNA in humans play crucial roles in evolution. Hence, scientists believe that unraveling the secret of non-coding DNA can show why people are different and how humans possess the ability to adapt quickly and remain flexible.
Olbers’ paradox, a part of astrophysics and physical cosmology, is basically a squabble about the sky being dark at night. This paradox is also phrased as the ‘dark night sky paradox’. The paradox states that an inert, considerably old universe with an equal number of stars scattered in the proportionately large space should be bright rather than being dark at night. The question of sky being dark at night might seem ridiculous with a much obvious answer, and the topical answer might surprise you. This question has been studied by the best physicists who have reached an answer that is simple but not so obvious. In order to find an answer to the Olbers’ paradox, the scientists and physicists had to struggle a lot to learn about the behavior of energy involved in the concept. One argument given by the scientists against the dark night paradox is that the light of distant stars might be hidden by the dust clouds. But this answer is again contradicted by the statement that these dust clouds should reach the temperature of the stars by their heat. Another statement contradicting the Olber’s paradox is that these distant stars might be too tiny and far that they can be seen in the vicinity. Besides, there might be numerous stars at increasing distances such that their smaller perceptible size is formed of by their bigger numbers. Another theory is of the time and age of the universe. Universe is 13.73 billion years old which states that light of the starts had certain time to light up the universe. Most of the starts we see today, in our night sky, do not exist anymore. We can see their light because it takes ages for their light to travel around the universe. So we could say that stars in the universe had certain amount of time to contribute to the illumination of the whole universe. Please read comments bellow for additional theories. However, as much as we searched this subject, it still remains a paradox.
Rig Veda, the oldest and perhaps most mystical text ever composed in India, says: “With deep respect, I bow to the sun, who travels 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha.” A yojana is about nine American miles; a nimesha is 16/75 of a second. 2,202 yojanas x 9 miles x 75/8 nimeshas = 185,794 m. So it says that sunlight travels at 186,000 miles per second! In 1387 A. D. They know the correct figure for the speed of light. Yogis were using the mala to keep track of the number of mantras. It has 109 beads, 108+1 Guru Bead. Why so? A] The mala represents the ecliptic. It is divided into 27 equal sections called Nakshatras, and each of these into four equal sectors called paadas, or “steps,” marking the 108 steps that the sun and moon take through heaven. 2] They stop at the 109th “guru bead,” flip the mala and continue reciting backwards. The guru bead represents the summer and winter solstices. Using a mala is a symbolic way of connecting ourselves with the cosmic cycles governing our universe. Yet there are another astronomical references to it : 1] The distance between the earth and the sun is approximately 108 times the sun’s diameter. Distance between earth & sun is 149,597,890 km and diameter of sun is 1,392,000 km i.e. 107.45 times. 2] And the distance between the earth and the moon is 108 times the moon’s diameter. Distance between earth & moon is 375,403km and moon diameter is 3,476 km i.e. 108 times. 3] The diameter of the sun is about 108 times the earth’s diameter. Sun diameter is 1,392,000 km and Earth diameter at equator is 12756 km i.e. Sun is 109 times that of earth. That is why Gurumani is considered as of 109th.
Murphy’s Law is a witticism which states that ‘anything that can possibly go wrong will go wrong’. The Law came into recognition at the Edward’s Air force Base at North Base in 1949. It was named after Captain Edward Murphy, who had been working on an Air Force Project MX981, which was designed to see the level of deceleration one can stand during an air crash. During a particular incident, after discovering a faulty wiring of transducer, Murphy cursed the technician responsible by saying “If there is any way to do it wrong, he will find it.” The contractor’s project manager, who kept a list of all the laws, named this one as ‘Murphy’s Law’. Murphy hated when someone used his name for absurd theories of “Why does buttered bread always land butter-side down?” He was the victim of his own Law.
Poincare conjecture is one of the mathematical theorems that has been demonstrated recently passably to the point that it can be taken as a full theorem. You can find various definitions for Poincare Conjecture on different websites. For example, according to Wikipedia “In mathematics, the Poincare conjecture (French, ) is a theorem about the characterization of the three-dimensional sphere among three-dimensional manifolds.” rnPoincare conjecture has been one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems and above all, this is the first ever and only Millennium Prize Problem that has been solved. The Poincare Conjecture states that if a compact 3-D manifold has no boundary and is simply connected, then it is said to be homeomorphic to a 3-D sphere. This conjecture is believed to have been formulated in 1904 by Henri Poincare, a French mathematician, as an elemental for achieving a perceptive of three dimensional shapes, 3-D sphere being the simplest one.rnrnThis conjecture was recently provided with a breakthrough proof by numerous new elements introduced by Perelman. He gained complete perceptive of singularity formation in Ricci flow, in addition to the manner of collapsing of the parts of a shape onto lower-dimensional spaces. He solved the problem by introducing entropy as a new quantity. This entropy measures the disorder in the space’s global geometry instead of measuring the disarray at the atomic level. Besides, he also pioneered a related local quantity, the L-functional, which was used that proved that the time between the configuration of singularities could not become smaller and smaller. rnPerelman has enriched mathematics by deploy his new ideas and methods with utmost technicalities and describing the obtained results with elegant succinctness. rnrnThe interesting fact is that Grigory Perelman declined the prize of one million dollars which comes with the Fields medal which is equivalent of the Nobel Prize for mathematics. Perelman is currently unemployed living with his mom in a small apartment near St. Petersburg. Interfax, a Russian news agency, quoted him as saying. “To put it short,” he said, “the main reason is my disagreement with the organized mathematical community. I don’t like their decisions; I consider them unjust.”
Leo is the fifth of the twelve Zodiac constellations. Depicted as a crouching lion facing the west, with a sickle of stars marking the head and mane of the animal, this constellation is seen mostly in the evening. It is easily noticeable during the spring season in the northern hemisphere and during autumn in the southern hemisphere. The brightest star of this constellation is ‘Regulus’. Various traits are associated with the Leo constellation. It is said that people with this sign are creative, warm hearted, enthusiastic, faithful, pompous, bossy, and intolerant. The other constellations namely Aries and Sagittarius, along with Leo are all fire elements. Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces bear water element. Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius are all air elements. According to the Greek mythology, Leo has been recognized as the Nemean lion. It was said to be placed in the sky after being killed by the Heracles or Hercules.
Sir Isaac Newton was born in Lincolnshire, England in 1643. He studied at Cambridge but from a period of time between 1664 and 1666 he made a series of discoveries. He discovered the law of universal gravitation during this time. This states that and attractive force will occur between any two parts of matter. The force that holds items to the planet is also what holds the moon and other celestial bodies in orbit.rnrnThe three laws of motion were also invented by Newton. The first states that each object in a still motion will stay still until a force is created on it. The second says that the force imposed onto an object is equal to a relationship between the mass of the item and its acceleration. Third there is the law where and equal and opposite reaction occurs with every action.rnrnNewton also discovered the mathematical process of calculus. This would help him to become a professor at Cambridge in 1669 as a Lucasian professor of mathematics. He retired from the university in 1701.rnrnIn 1704 Newton promoted in a book on optics that light is composed of particles and that white light comes from all colors of the light spectrum. Newton continued to work as the president of the Royal Society from then until his death in 1727. He was very religious man, but he never believed in holy trinity and the idea of hell and devils. He loved alchemy and everything that could sparkle ingenuity. He never had apple fallen on his head. He said that he saw apple falling from the tree in the garden when he was staring through his house window.rn
Tornado is a violent storm commonly known as a twister that brings destruction to people and property. Tornadoes mostly hit the United States of America although they might come anytime and anywhere. Tornadoes are high speed winds that hit the place generally in the months of March to May. The speed and size of the tornado can vary to any extent. Tornadoes are generally accompanied with thunderstorms. Some common signs of tornadoes are dark, blackish green sky, hailstorm and loud sounds like that of a yelling train etc. The main reason of occurrence of a tornado is the meeting of warm air that rises up the ground with the cool air that rushes down to descend. A tornado may rotate either in clockwise or anticlockwise direction. The speed of rotation of this funnel shaped tornado is so high that it destroys everything that comes in its way. The strength of a tornado is so high that it can uproot trees, blow the roofs of the buildings or even crumple down buildings to ashes. The color of a tornado depends upon two factors the surroundings and the time of the day. The tornado is a noisy wind; the sound of which can be either high or low depending upon the obstructions in the way. It has been recorded that almost eight hundred to one thousand tornadoes hit America every year killing 80 people and injuring around fifteen hundred. Other tornado prone areas are south of Canada, south of Africa, some regions of Australia, New Zealand and Asia. “Tri-state” tornado that hit United States of America in March 18, 1925 was the deadliest tornado and tornado in Oklahoma in 1999 was the most destructive tornado known to men. Interesting fact about tornado is that some people survived being in the middle of tornado.
Diaphragm is a dome shaped structure which has several large muscles which naturally separates any two adjacent parts in a human body or body of the mammals. The thoraco abdominal diaphragm is the commonly known muscle. Considering a human body, these muscles serve to part the cavity of the chest from that of the abdomen. The diaphragm top is located one and one and a half inches from the bottom of the sternum supports the heart, and diaphragm bottom is attached round the lower ribs connecting to the lower lumbar vertebrae. Being the chief part of the respiration process in humans, these muscles rest into dome shape during exhalation. It contracts when air is inhaled; it lets the chest cavity expand by a simultaneous contraction of the chest muscles. When air is deeply inhaled followed by the expansion of the belly while inhalation and retraction, while exhalation, the diaphragm moves further down into the abdomen, thereby making the lungs expand completely in the chest cavity. This suggests that more amount of oxygen is inhaled and carbon dioxide is exhaled. A quick breathing may cause hyperventilation due to the loss of required amount of carbon dioxide.
Earthquakes are the nature’s most dangerous calamity. Earthquakes can hit any place, at any time and at any extreme level. There is no way out to stop earthquakes but only thing that humans can do is become more knowledgeable to protect themselves and lessen the amount of damage to the people as well as the property. The earthquake is caused due to movement of tectonic plates below the Earth’s crust when they are pushed, pulled or jostled against each other. When the pressure of this movement becomes unbearable the rocks crack and shifts and the waves of energy produced is an earthquake.rnrnThe most sensitive zone to earthquakes is Alaska. In Alaska the earthquake hit at the magnitude of eight and almost seven earthquakes hit this place every year. It is also seen that Alaska is hit with the earthquake of magnitude 8 once every fourteen years. The records show that every minute two earthquakes occur in the world. The largest recorded earthquake in the U. S. was of the magnitude 9.2 and that in the world was of the magnitude 9.5 which hit Chile in 1960.rnrnEarthquakes also occur on the moons and are hence called “moonquakes” but they are less frequent and are of a smaller magnitude.rnrnEarthquakes are not weather based, they occur in any weather and generally a earthquake lasts for 60 seconds causing lots of damage to people, property, country and the world as a whole.rnrnThe most recent earthquake occurred in 2004 brought along with it tsunami, in the western coast of Sumatra and took away almost 2, 55, 000 lives.rnrnMost of the earthquakes occur in the rim of the Pacific Ocean, known as the “Ring of Fire” due to its constant volcanic activity.rn rn
Twix is a candy bar that was introduced in U.K. in 1967 and U.S. in 1979 and had been known as a Raider bar in some places until 1991 despite concerns over the change being a marketing ploy to some. This type of bar features a cookie center with a caramel topping all covered in a milk chocolate coating. Two of these bars come in each package. Twix bars come in many varieties including a version with a chocolate cookie and a peanut butter topping. Various other forms have appeared too including mint, ice cream and double chocolate bars. One package of Twix contains 284 calories with 125 of them coming from fat. It also contains 14g of fat and 5g of saturated fat. 3mg of cholesterol and 37g of carbohydrates can also be found.
The diamond is hardest natural rock on earth. This does not mean that it’s unbreakable or cannot be reduced in size. Diamonds can be reduced to simply nothing at very high temperatures. When a diamond is placed in a microwave and the temperature raised to 1405 degrees Fahrenheit or seven hundred and sixty three degrees Celsius it will simply disappear into thin air. Nothing will remain in the microwave but just carbon dioxide that has been produced in the process.rnrnDiamonds take a long time to be formed. They are formed within the earth’s crust for a period of over a billion years. It is formed at about 150 kilometers within the earth’s crust. They are then pushed to the surface of the earth by volcanoes. Diamonds are found within a volcanic rock that is commonly referred to as Kimberlite. Other diamonds can be found in the sea after they have been pushed there by the rivers.rnrnThe diamond boasts of being 58 times harder than the second hardest mineral on earth which is the corundum which forms sapphires and rubies. People tried for many ways to cut the diamond using different tools to later discover that the only way that one can be able to cut the rock is by using another diamond. However, diamonds are brittle and will shatter when they are hit hard with a hammer.rnrnThe largest diamond in the world is the Cullian. This rock was found in South Africa. When uncut, the rock weighed and amazing 3000 carats. It was later cut into the great star of Africa, lesser star of Africa and other diamonds. The cut diamonds weighed 530.2, 317.4 and 104 carats respectively. The smaller diamonds now form part of the crown jewels of the British. The Cullian boasts of being three times bigger than the second largest diamond in the world. The second largest diamond is known as the Excelsior. This rock was also found in South Africa. The largest polished diamond that was documented was the Unamed brown. The rock weighed 545 carats. It was cut down from a 700 carat rock. The masterpiece took three years to complete. Another diamond that took a similar length of time to complete is the centenary diamond that forms part of the British crown jewels. The centenary diamond boasts of being the largest flawless diamond and weighs 273.85 carats.rnrnIt is a common assumption that all diamonds are white. This is not the case. Impurities give the diamonds a blue, orange, red, yellow, green or black shade. The rarest shade of diamonds would be the vivid blue, pink or green diamond. The diamonds do not bare the tag of being the rarest diamonds. The rarest mineral would be the red ruby. Diamonds are very common and can be found in plenty. Most of the diamonds that are mined cannot be used for jewelry. They are used to make cheap rings or in industries.rnrnThere has also been the development of synthetic diamonds. They can be made by mixing lithium with paraffin and bone oil and then the mixture heated till its red hot in iron tubes. The scientists that came up with this process went by the name James Ballatyne Hannay. In our today world diamonds can also be made by crystallizing carbon under pressure. The business of selling synthesized diamonds is very big today. This is because the diamonds sell for less than the mined diamonds. One cannot even tell apart the mined diamonds from the synthetic diamonds. This also applies to the so called diamond experts.rnDiamonds are weighed differently from gold. The gold carat shows purity. One carat of diamond is 200 milligrams. This applies to both mined and synthetic diamonds. The term carat was derived from the carob bean. The beans were used by gem dealers to balance their scales as they would have the same weight.rnrnMany might wonder what led to people wearing diamonds on their fourth finger. This custom was derived from the ancient Egyptians. They believed that the vein of love ran through the fourth finger and went straight to the heart.rnrnThe mineral was given this name due to its characteristic of being hard. It came from the Greek word adamas. This word means unconquerable.rnWhen one mentions the word diamonds, the famous slogan, a diamond is forever, comes into mind. This slogan was created in the year 1947. It was a slogan that was used as a marketing strategy for diamond. The slogan was also voted as the best slogan in the 20th century.rnrnToday diamonds are commonly used as engagement rings. This tradition was started by Archduke Maximillian who gave a ring to Mary of Burgundy. Then N.W Ayer was able to take advantage of this act and through clever marketing he was able to turn this gesture into a modern tradition. His marketing strategy was so clever that it’s still used to date to market the rocks.rn
What the bleep do we know about this revolutionary beverage? Coca Cola has been invented by doctor/pharmacist John Pemerton in 1886. John believed that this drink was medicine and since it was made from coca leaves it can relieve you from pain and exhaustion. This all makes sense since coca leaves contain cocaine (from 0.1% to 0.9% depending on altitude where grown). Today Coca Cola is produced without cocaine. Interestingly, Coca Cola Company still imports around 100 tons of coca leaves each year from Peru firm called National Coca Co. In order to import coca leaves into United States you need special license from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.rnrnIt takes 2 liters of water to produce one liter of Coca Cola. Lack of the clean water made Indian farmers protest in 2004 against the Coca Cola Company and their water consumption in third world countries. Interesting Coca Cola fact is that few years earlier Coca Cola launched program called “Just Say No to H2O” which involves spreading the idea to drink Coca Cola instead of water. Main idea of the program was to serve Coca Cola for free in restaurants where customers ordered plain drinking water.rn rnIt is the urban myth that Coca Cola was originally green. Coca Cola has always been the same brownish color. As much as we hate Coca Cola we can’t resist drinking it. Why? The truth is that we are addicted to the soft drinks containing caffeine and large quantities of sugar.rn rnWhat are the ingredients of Coca-Cola? From the Coca Cola label: carbonated water, cane sugar, caramel color, food acid (phosphoric acid 338), “flavor” and caffeine. However, there is also a secret ingredient in Coca Cola called ‘Merchandise 7X’ and description of this ingredient is kept in a security vault in Atlanta, Georgia. Only few very high positioned officials know what is hidden behind this secret ingredient. The questions arises what do we really drink?rn rnWhat we know today is that Coca Cola is very acidic drink with a high quantity of sugar that masks the acid taste. The acid in Coca Cola is called phosphoric acid which is known to dissolve teeth, metal and it will eat away your liver. In reality Coca Cola won’t kill you instantly. It will make your body prone to many other diseases like: osteoporosis (lack of calcium due high levels of phosphorous), cancer, mild depression, flu-like feelings, teeth problems, and fatigue.rn
A hangover is a condition which is a result of the consumption of an excessively large amount of alcohol. But in reality a hangover is more like a withdrawal from alcohol for a short time period. A lot of experts state that some of the ingredients which are present in alcohol cause the hangover. The ingredients which are present in alcohol are known as congeners. rnrnDuring the ancient times, people used a combination containing myrrh and the beaks of birds which had been grounded to a fine paste, in order to treat a hangover. But most people feel that a similar combination cannot be used in the modern times in order to treat a hangover. Liquor which is light like vodka and gin should be consumed instead of heavy and dark liquors like whiskey and brandy. All kinds of alcoholic beverages which contain chemicals should be avoided since they will cause a very sever hangover. The worst hangover will usually be caused by the consumption of red wine. A lot of people are also likely to become very angry and depressed after they have consumed a large amount of alcohol. rnrn
If you would prefer bluish skin then your diet should include silver. An over exposure to the chemical form of silver causes an acute discoloration of the skin from normal to blue or bluish-gray in human beings or animals. This condition is called as Argyria. The word is a derivative of the Greek word ‘argyros’ which implies ‘silver’. It is due to the deposition of the silver salts on one’s eyes, skin and other internal organs. In the pre-antibiotic times, this skin disease was more prevalent due to the use of silver in the nasal drops. This disease has now been recognized as a permanent skin disease that is slowly becoming common. 58-year-old Paul Karason suffered a shocking side effect from the drug “colloidal silver,” which he used to treat a skin condition; his skin turned blue. Paul Karason looked like an ordinary man until about a decade ago, when he began treating himself with silver. Patients develop argyria, which is the permanent collection of silver under the skin. Karason is blue for the rest of his life! Karason died at the age of 62 after having suffered a heart attack.